By Woolley Adam
This useful, easy, and informative textual content surveys simple rules of toxicology. it really is a useful consultant to comparing toxicity and similar information, impending toxicity trying out and interpretation, and knowing the strategies of possibility prediction and chance overview and administration.
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Additional info for A Guide to Practical Toxicology: Evaluation, Prediction, and Risk
For instance, Eskimos tend to be able to metabolize the anti-tuberculosis drug isoniazid, faster than Egyptians and would therefore give erroneous results were they to be used as a test system to investigate safety of use in Egyptians. Finally there is no doubt that giving even small doses of an unknown chemical to humans may not be ethically acceptable. For these reasons, experiments that attempt to ﬁnd new methods of investigation and to validate them for use in safety evaluation comprise one of the more important avenues of toxicological exploration.
Other parts of the kidney, notably the glomerulus and the pelvis, do not repair so readily in parts due to differences in embryonic origin. As suggested by the example of the kidney, tissues which do not divide readily, do not repair easily or in some cases, at all. Of these, the usual example is the central nervous system, another tissue with a large functional reserve that can be overwhelmed by insidious toxic actions over a period of years. CELLULAR BASIS AND CONSEQUENCES OF TOXIC CHANGE With the exception of a few substances that are corrosive, direct effects of toxic substances are expressed in individual cells.
This is particularly a problem in species at the top of the food chain and has recently been acknowledged to be a factor in marine mammal toxicology. At one time Americans were, by their own regulatory standards, inedible due to the amounts of DDT they had accumulated in their adipose tissue. For such compounds, toxicity can be expressed if there is a sudden loss of weight, reducing adipose tissue and releasing large amounts of toxin into the plasma where it can pass to the target organs, as in migration or pregnancy in malnourished people.
A Guide to Practical Toxicology: Evaluation, Prediction, and Risk by Woolley Adam