By V Cook
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The price of energy plays an important role in the economics of efficiency, with higher prices making investment in low-energy technology more cost-effective for purchasers and therefore more attractive to manufacturers. Conversely there is less interest when energy prices are low. Setting energy prices so they realistically reflect all costs is therefore an important prerequisite for the efficient operation of an energy efficiency market. Chapter 2 • Effective policies for energy efficiency 41 © OECD/IEA, 2009 Will policy measures which internalise the price of carbon fix the problem on their own?
Governments can use their purchasing power to commit to orders for the development of new products with higher efficiency levels than currently are available. Fiscal measures There are a range of potential financial tools which can be used to encourage energy efficiency, targeted either at the consumer to provide a market pull or at the supply chain in order to reduce retail prices. Examples of financial measures include: • Capital rebates, discounts; • Grants; • Low interest loans; • Variable consumption tax rates; • Tax credits.
Chapter 3 provides an in-depth review of progress with energy efficient appliance policy implementation in a range of IEA countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea and the United States, as well as in the EU, and the major emerging economies including Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa. Chapter 1 • Global and regional trends in residential electricity consumption 37 © OECD/IEA, 2009 This book is organised as follows: Chapter 4 looks closely at the specific case of electronic appliances, their overall electricity consumption and future trends.
Analysis of Distance Protection by V Cook