By Ramasamy Natarajan
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Extra info for Computer-aided power system analysis
2. Copyright 2002 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved. 2 Output of Line Constants Program (Edited Version) (Courtesy of H. W. 1. The calculated line parameters are: Copyright 2002 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved. 4. 4. 4M o'o c 36 -Jk°'°C I 22 M >f o'o-r- w A I 31 3M 26. 3 Copyright 2002 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved. 2 IMPEDANCE OF UNDERGROUND CABLES An increasing number of urban distribution networks use underground cables for transmission and distribution systems. Performance evaluations and fault calculations for such circuits require the data of sequence parameters.
Copyright 2002 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved. 3. 6 109 131 153 218 327 475 In case the voltage limit is not specified, it is a good practice to use a maximum and minimum voltage of +5% and -5% of the nominal voltage respectively. In extra high voltage systems, an upper voltage tolerance of+10% is often used. Loading levels - The loading levels of transmission lines, cable circuits and transformers are usually given as nominal ratings. In the case of emergency conditions, the short term emergency rating (STE) and long-term emergency ratings are used, which are defined below.
Billington and S. S. Sachdeva, "Real and Reactive Power Optimization by Sub Optimal Techniques," IEEE PES Summer Meeting, Oregon, July 1971, Paper 71 Tp596-PWR (6 bus data). 5. Common Format for Exchange of Solved Load Flow Cases, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. 6, November/December 1973, pp. 1916-1925. 6. , Schenectady, New York. 7. J. Grainger and W. D. , Power System Analysis, McGrawHill Book Company, 1994. Copyright 2002 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved. 1 INTRODUCTION In a power system short circuits occur once in a while due to lightning, flash over due to polluted insulation, falling of tree branches on the overhead system, animal intrusion and erroneous operations.
Computer-aided power system analysis by Ramasamy Natarajan