Get Dictionary of Archaeology PDF

By Ian Shaw

ISBN-10: 0631174230

ISBN-13: 9780631174233

This dictionary offers these learning or operating in archaeology with a whole connection with the sector.

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An important concomitant has been the increasing amount of ethnographic recording, especially of rural industries such as iron-working, potting and house-building, and also of settlement spacing, resource catchment, cattle-herding strategies and hunter-gatherer societies and techniques. Ethnoarchaeological theory in the 1980s drew heavily on the East African experience (see ETHNOARCHAEOLOGY). While some aspects of interior Iron-Age research have been rather narrowly conceived within local historical contexts, the study of the Swahili coast – which related very obviously between the 9th and 16th centuries AD to the Indian Ocean, the Islamic heartlands and the wider world – has been largely pursued as a separate subject (see SWAHILI HARBOUR TOWNS).

JS 4 Southern Africa Southern Africa is a subcontinent of contrasts. Climatically, rainfall is the most important factor, with a winter rainfall pattern dominant in its southwestern corner. Over the remaining western third of South Africa rainfall may fall all year round, but is high only along the coast; the rest of the subcontinent has a summer rainfall régime, with precipitation highest over its eastern half. Except for the Zambezi River and its tributaries, the westward-flowing Orange/Vaal system is the most extensive drainage system; most other rivers, including the Limpopo, drain into the Indian Ocean.

1. Climatic change. The climate of West Africa is in large part determined by the annual movement of the InterTropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), from about 19° N in summer to 6° N in winter, reflecting the relative strength of the humid marine southwesterly (monsoon) and dry continental northeasterly (harmattan) trade winds. Marine and lacustrine cores have provided evidence (oxygenisotope and pollen records, radiocarbon dates, and other environmental indicators such as diatoms and quartz grains) on the basis of which a succession of late Quaternary arid and humid phases has been recognised, corresponding to more southerly and more northerly positions of the ITCZ and broadly speaking to the glacials and interglacials of northern temperate latitudes.

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Dictionary of Archaeology by Ian Shaw

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