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7, a spatially incoherent source whose irradiance distribution has the same form as Eq. 6, produces fields that exhibit a high degree of coherence for the three optical path differences, 'Z 0 and 'Z r JOB Z B Z 'Z f 2 , where a coherence vortex can be clearly observed with the inversed topological charge, respectively. Relation 7 gives three correlation peaks, and we can control the distance between the central and the side peaks with coherence vortices by changing the parameter J of the zone plate with a spatial light modulator.
The next example: on-chip scanning confocal microscope is obtained by the “smart pixel” solution . The individual pixel is configured from the vertical cavity surface emitted laser (VCSELs) - flip-chip bonded to the microactuator moving up-and-down the integrated microlens, flying directly above the specimen (Fig. 8). The use of optical feedback of the laser cavity as an active detection system, simplifies the microscope design because the light source and detector are unified parts of the VCSEL itself.
A histogram of an undeformed object showing pixel variation due to noise. If phase inclusions could be identified a priori in a wrapped phase map, it would make unwrapping trivial, but they are only evident a postiori after unwrapping. Branch cuts based on residues serve to prevent phase inclusions from being unwrapped if they indicate correctly the locations of all phase inclusions. Unfortunately, residues may not always indicate the correct locations of phase inclusions. This is particularly true when phase inclusions occur diagonally as shown in table 2.
New Scientist 2011 june 4 by Reed Business Information Ltd